This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Using data from nearly 2 million people and 8 million phone calls over the course of a year, physicist Cesar Hidalgo from the University of Notre Dame and sociologist Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile have investigated the persistence of relationships within the cell phone network. Somewhat intuitively, they found that the leading cause of persistent relationships is reciprocity – returning a friend´s call. Further, they could use these characteristics to predict the nature of relationships in the future.As the researchers explain in their study, the persistence of the connection between two individuals is a measurement of how often they call each other. The scientists analyzed 15-day intervals, and determined if the two callers made contact within each interval. The greater number of these chunks of time in which contact occurred, the higher the pair´s persistence value was.The scientists found that the majority (60%) of ties between two callers lasted for just one 15-day interval. The next 20% of ties disappeared slowly throughout the course of the year, and the remaining 20% persisted for the entire one-year period. The results showed that the strongest factor determining persistence values was when individuals returned calls to each other. When links were reciprocated, those links had a greater chance of persisting for longer time periods. Also, when an individual´s connections had connections among themselves (when a person´s friends knew each other), his or her own connections lasted longer. The results also revealed insight into “social butterflies” – individuals with a high number of links. “One result that I thought was somehow not so intuitive was the trade-off between the degree (number of links) of a person and the persistence of its ties,” Hidalgo told PhysOrg.com. “It has been known for a long time that some people are much more connected than others, yet it was not known whether these highly connected individuals also had a larger number of strong connections. While time constraints may force people with more ties to be less persistent on average, the data also showed that, in absolute terms, people with more ties also have a greater number of persistent ties than those less connected. Highly connected individuals are not trading quality for quantity; rather, they appear to be more socially expressed in both the numbers of links and the persistence or strength of them.” By knowing the characteristics of persistence, the researchers could look at the features of the network for the first 15 days, and predict what the network would look like in the future. Since social connections play a role in areas such as collective decision making and consumption, predicting these connections might help researchers predict some of society´s actions. For example, measuring the persistence of a person´s social ties might open a new dimension for marketing segmentation strategies.”One area which is interested in new ways of characterizing individuals is marketing,” Hidalgo said. “To more effectively market their products, companies have traditionally segmented the targeted population by age, gender, ethnicities and socioeconomic status. As data on the social structure becomes increasingly available, it becomes possible for companies to categorize people based on their local structure on the social network. “This opens a new layer of information that cannot be accessed otherwise. The social structure surrounding an individual is likely the result of its behavior and personality, hence is likely to carry more relevant information than its age and gender. The persistence of a person´s social relationships is a dynamical measure that can be used to tell us how strongly a person is connected to its peers. It could indicate a level of respect or authority that cannot be captured by purely structural measures, such as the number of links or the density of its social structure.”More information: Hidalgo, Cesar A. and Rodriguez-Sickert, C. “The dynamics of a mobile phone network.” Physica A 387 (2008) 3017-3024. Citation: Physicists investigate ‘best friends forever’ (2008, April 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-04-physicists-friends.html Explore further Some friendships are short and fleeting, while others may last years. Although a wide variety of factors go into determining the strength of our relationships, the long-lasting ones seem to share a number of the same characteristics, according to a recent study. Collegiate affirmative action bans tied to rise in smoking among minority high schoolers A network model created with data from the study: blue nodes are males, pink nodes are females, and gray nodes are unknown gender. The node size is proportional to the age of the phone user, and the color and width of the links grows with persistence. Image credit: Cesar Hidalgo and Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert.
Citation: Low-Budget Fusion Reactor Could Generate Energy within a Decade (2009, August 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-08-low-budget-fusion-reactor-energy-decade.html General Fusion’s reactor design consists of 220 pistons that simultaneously ram a metal sphere. This creates a shock wave inside the sphere, so that plasma rings in the center create a fusion reaction. Credit: General Fusion. ITER nuclear fusion reactor to be built in Southern France This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. General Fusion has recently raised enough financial support – $13.5 million – from public and private investors to start the project. Rather than using expensive superconducting magnets (tokamaks) like the $14-billion ITER project in France or powerful lasers like those used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the US, General Fusion plans to try a relatively low-tech approach called magnetized target fusion.The reactor consists of a metal sphere with a diameter of three meters. Inside the sphere, a liquid mixture of lithium and lead spins to create a vortex with a vertical cavity in the center. Then, the researchers inject two donut-shaped plasma rings called spheromaks into the top and bottom of the vertical cavity – like “blowing smoke rings at each other,” explains Doug Richardson, chief executive of General Fusion.The last step is mainly well-timed brute mechanical force. 220 pneumatically controlled pistons on the outer surface of the sphere are programmed to simultaneously ram the surface of the sphere one time per second. This force sends an acoustic wave through the spinning liquid that becomes a shock wave when it reaches the spheromaks in the center, triggering a fusion burst. Specifically, the plasma’s hydrogen isotopes – deuterium and tritium – fuse into helium, releasing neutrons that are trapped by the lithium and lead mixture. The neutrons cause the liquid to heat up, and the heat is extracted through a heat exchanger. Part of the resulting heat is used to make steam to spin a turbine for power generation, while the rest goes back to recharge the pistons. The biggest challenge with the design will likely be showing that the technique actually works; no one has ever demonstrated that spheromaks can be compressed enough – while maintaining their donut shape – to create fusion. The design also takes advantage of digital control technologies that have only recently been developed, which are required to ensure that all 220 pistons strike the sphere at once. General Fusion has just started developing simulations of the project, and hopes to build a test reactor and demonstrate net gain within five years. If everything goes according to plan, they will then build a 100-megawatt prototype reactor to be finished five years after that, which would cost an estimated $500 million.According to fusion experts interviewed in MIT Technology Review, the design will likely face many challenges, but the idea is scientifically sound. As Ken Fowler, professor emeritus of nuclear engineering and plasma physics at the University of California, Berkeley, explained, the culture of a private startup might enable the process to proceed more quickly, with less worry about potential risks.via: MIT Technology Review© 2009 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Currently, most nuclear fusion power plants are large, expensive projects that will take decades to benefit from. But a startup company in Vancouver, Canada, called General Fusion is taking the fast track to fusion, with a plan to build a working prototype fusion power plant within the next decade at a cost of less than a billion dollars. Explore further
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Researchers have been excavating at the Sakitari cave site since 2009 and have now found what they believe to be evidence of people finding a way to survive on the resource-limited island—fish hooks that would allow them catch live protein-laden prey. Prior research has suggested that humans have been visiting the island for approximately 50,000 years, but until now, there was little evidence of people staying on the island for long periods of time—at least until the modern era. But this new evidence suggests that people may have been living on the island continuously for the past 23,000 years—back to the time when the fish hooks (which were fashioned out of sea snail shells) were being used.In addition to the fish hooks, the researchers also found evidence of other food that had been eaten by the early humans such as frogs, birds, small mammals and even eels—much of it had been charred, suggesting humans had cooked them first. Prior to this latest report, researchers working in the cave had found human skeletal remains, beads crafted by the early people living there and what some believe might have been a grindstone. Interestingly, archaeologists have also found the remains of cooked lobster appearing to be of the size that would have been taken in the fall—the prime time for lobster fishing, as that is when they taste the best.The fish hooks represent an advancement in maritime technology, one that was necessary for the spread of people across the islands that dot the world’s oceans—they suggest that people were able to spread to a much wider geographical zone earlier than has been thought. The team also reports that they have found some other artifacts that might suggest people have been living on Okinawa going back as much as 35,000 years. (Phys.org)—A large team of Japanese researchers affiliated with multiple institutions working at a dig site on the south side of the island of Okinawa has found what are believed to be the oldest examples of fishing hooks ever unearthed. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes the fish hooks, other artifacts they found and why they believe their findings are challenging conventional views of maritime adaptations. Gone fishing? We have for 42,000 years Citation: Ancient fish hooks found on Okinawa suggest earlier maritime migration than thought (2016, September 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-09-ancient-fish-okinawa-earlier-maritime.html Explore further © 2016 Phys.org Pieces of finished (Upper) and unfinished (Lower) fishhooks from Sakitari Cave. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1607857113 More information: Masaki Fujita et al. Advanced maritime adaptation in the western Pacific coastal region extends back to 35,000–30,000 years before present, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1607857113AbstractMaritime adaptation was one of the essential factors that enabled modern humans to disperse all over the world. However, geographic distribution of early maritime technology during the Late Pleistocene remains unclear. At this time, the Indonesian Archipelago and eastern New Guinea stand as the sole, well-recognized area for secure Pleistocene evidence of repeated ocean crossings and advanced fishing technology. The incomplete archeological records also make it difficult to know whether modern humans could sustain their life on a resource-poor, small oceanic island for extended periods with Paleolithic technology. We here report evidence from a limestone cave site on Okinawa Island, Japan, of successive occupation that extends back to 35,000−30,000 y ago. Well-stratified strata at the Sakitari Cave site yielded a rich assemblage of seashell artifacts, including formally shaped tools, beads, and the world’s oldest fishhooks. These are accompanied by seasonally exploited food residue. The persistent occupation on this relatively small, geographically isolated island, as well as the appearance of Paleolithic sites on nearby islands by 30,000 y ago, suggest wider distribution of successful maritime adaptations than previously recognized, spanning the lower to midlatitude areas in the western Pacific coastal region. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: High-precision measurement of the proton’s atomic mass, arXiv:1706.06780 [physics.atom-ph] arxiv.org/abs/1706.06780AbstractWe report on the precise measurement of the atomic mass of a single proton with a purpose-built Penning-trap system. With a precision of 32 parts-per-trillion our result not only improves on the current CODATA literature value by a factor of three, but also disagrees with it at a level of about 3 standard deviations. (Phys.org)—An international team of researchers has developed a new way to measure the mass of a proton and found the particle to be approximately 30 billionths of a percent less than previously thought. The group has written a paper describing their process and results and have uploaded it to the prepress server arXiv. Explore further Improved measurements of antiproton’s magnetic moment deepen mystery of baryonic asymmetry Sketch of the trap setup. The trap tower includes two separate storage traps (ST-I, ST-II), the measurement trap (MT) and a reference trap (RT) for magnetic field monitoring, which is presently not used. Ions are created in-situ using a mini-EBIT. By shuttling the ions between the storage traps and the MT, the time between successive measurements is minimized. Individual superconducting detection circuits for the proton (blue) and for the carbon ion (red), allow measurements at the identical electrostatic field configurations and thus guarantee the identical position and magnetic field. Credit: arXiv:1706.06780 [physics.atom-ph] Citation: Higher precision measurements show proton mass less than thought (2017, July 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-higher-precision-proton-mass-thought.html Journal information: arXiv © 2017 Phys.org For some time now, the atomic mass of a proton has been an accepted standard measurement used to calculate other physics properties. Now, it appears researchers may have to revisit some of those entities as the most accurate ever measurement of the mass of a proton shows less mass than has been believed.In this new effort, the researchers fired an electron beam at a selected target atom held in a chilled vacuum chamber, releasing a proton. The group was then able to isolate the proton in a Penning trap, which is a device that creates both an electronic and magnetic field. Inside the trap, the proton moved in circles—measuring its velocity allowed the researchers to calculate its mass, which was 1.007 276 466 583(15)(29) atomic mass units. The 15 in parentheses represented the statistical uncertainty and the 29 that followed represented the systematic uncertainty.The group reports that their technique was three times more precise than any other technique used to date.Others have noted that making more precise measurements of protons and other particles could explain some of the big mysteries in physics—such as why the radius of a proton has been found to be smaller than theory has suggested, or why there is more matter than antimatter. It could also help research efforts exploring apparent discrepancies between protons and antiprotons.The research group has made clear its plans to continue refining its measuring technique—their goal is to improve the measurement for a proton by a factor of six. Meanwhile, if others are able to reproduce the work by the team, the new measurement could be included in the newest CODATA, which is scheduled for publishing in just a few months. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Celebrating the festive season, Uchaan group is taking a giant leap forward and showcasing great work of arts at Gurgaon’s ‘Gold Souk’ The Jewellery Mall. The exhibition, Divine Connection- Lets Connect to divinity, is going on till 5 November. This group exhibition of painting sculpture and photography presents artworks from renowned artist like Anil Rawat, Anil Kohli, Rohit Kaushik, Prince Chand, Geetika Sangwan, Shubra Jain, Poonam Saini, Shilpi Malik, Shikha Jamwal, Simran Kaur, Shubha Bansal and Monica Wadhwa. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Uchaan group is a collaboration of established and experienced artists and upcoming artists having a great potential ahead. It is curated by Jyoti Kalra. Uchaan is always in pursuance of social initiative and to fulfill the same is supporting endowed and promising artist Neelesh Ganesh who is Autistic with high functioning disorder known as Asperger Syndrome. He believes in expressing himself with power of artworks. ‘Art from the heart’ is philosophy of his life.
Kolkata: Taking a major move to help identifying vision related problems at the very primary stage, around 85,000 girls from different schools in Howrah Municipal Corporation (HMC) area will be undergoing eye-testing.Bhaskar Bhattacharjee, Member Mayor-in-Council (Health), said: “The eye-testing camp is going to start from May 19. The first programme will be held at Jogesh Chandra Girls’ School in the central part of the city and Mayor Dr Rathin Chakraborty will be inaugurating the programme.” Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHe said this is the first time when such an initiative has been taken for up eye-checking of so many school-goers. It may be mentioned that the year-long programme will be carried by an organisation along with a healthcare centre specialised in treatment of eyes with necessary support from the HMC. Teams will be visiting from one school to another in a bid to the conduct the eye-checkup camps. There is a proper planning following which the teams comprising senior ophthalmologists and their assistants will be visiting the schools. Girl students will be undergoing necessary tests of eyes. The eye-checkup camps will be organised in such a way that the curriculum of the schools don’t get affected. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe students will also be provided with necessary treatments if any defect is found. The students, who are found with defected eyesight, will be provided with spectacles.According to experts, besides helping students to know if they are suffering from any sort of eye defect, the camps will also help to create awareness about the steps needed to care for the eyes and practice preventive measures as well. It may be mentioned that now-a-days students from very early age start using computers and even remain glued to smart phones. During the camps they would also know about the ill effects of watching excessive television or playing games. It may be mentioned that the civic body is also going to set up eye-checkup centre in one of its Urban Primary Health Centres (UPHC) at Belgachia. At present there is one at the UPHC near Shibpur Police Station where it remains operational on three days a week.
Kolkata: The Calcutta High Court has set aside denial of compensation to a victim of human trafficking by West Bengal State Legal Services Authority (SLSA) and directed it to pay the same to her. Justice Rajasekhar Mantha said compensation is awarded under the Victim Rehabilitation Scheme of 2017 as the fundamental rights of the victim under Article 21 (Right to Life) have been in fact violated. Denial of compensation to such victim would continue such violation and perpetrate gross inhumanity on the victim in question, Justice Mantha said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed Such rehabilitation is not dependent on the pace in which either the investigation is conducted or the trial is carried on, the court said. “The object and purpose of the scheme of 2017 is that a victim of a serious crime, especially a woman, needs urgent and immediate attention and both physical and mental rehabilitation,” Justice Mantha observed. Directing that the quantum to be disbursed either in one go or in intervals shall be decided by the SLSA, the court said that the victim shall be entitled to claim and justify the amount of compensation she requires at a given point of time “not exceeding the amount of compensation payable to her in entirety”. Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJP Justice Mantha, while passing the order recently, also directed the state CID, which is handling the case, to conduct the investigation expeditiously and apprehend the absconding persons. The court directed the SLSA that it would assess the compensation payable to the victim and make over the same to her within 10 days of communication of the order. The girl, a victim of human trafficking, was rescued from Maharashtra’s Pune and brought back to West Bengal. While two accused persons were arrested, two others are absconding. “The girl had filed an application under the West Bengal Victim Compensation Scheme 2017, but was denied the relief by a district legal services authority and an appeal before the SLSA was also rejected,” her counsel Kaushik Gupta said. She moved the high court challenging the rejection of her appeal by the SLSA. Passing the order, the high court observed that the object and purpose behind the scheme is compensation to the victim primarily for the purpose of rehabilitation. A victim can claim rehabilitation during the pendency of the trial, prior to its commencement or upon conclusion of a trial as per the existing laws, the court noted. The SLSA rejected her claim on the ground that both conditions, one being the accused not being traced or identified, as well as trial not having commenced, are required to be satisfied to entitle the petitioner for compensation. The court said that the rejection by the SLSA on such grounds cannot be sustained in law. Justice Mantha referred to a July 2017 judgement by a co-ordinate bench of this high court that said the Victim Compensation Scheme requires and enforces the directive principles enshrined in the Constitution of India under Article 38 which obligates the state to render social justice to its citizens. A citizen cannot be asked to forfeit the right to live with dignity just because such citizen has become a victim of an act of crime, the earlier judgement said, adding that “the state is obliged to protect the life and property of its citizen”.
If in the beginning was the ‘word’, theatre paved the way for the word to be used meaningfully. The most distinctive quality about theatre, one that distinguishes it from other art forms, is the interactive relationship between actor and audience, the engagement in a communal activity. What is of consequence is how we use this community creating quality of theatre in the contemporary world, how we shape the interactive and communal nature of the theatrical experience to make it a forceful political agency. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In a world when things have really fallen apart in the Yeatsian sense, it is important to empower ourselves as best as we can. In theatre, that can happen when the audience does not cling to its passive role as spectators who merely watch, but rather transform into a community of individuals who can look beyond their prescribed roles within not just the theatrical space but also in the world beyond theatre. Only then can the true role of theatre in the drama of life unfold itself. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIn 2005, when Juliano
‘Once Upon a Time’ a play created by Miran Production finally gave an impactful route to the crowd. The play was held by a brilliant cast, none other than Tom Alter, Charu Shankar, Sunit Tandon.The play was a repertoire of five short stories based on human emotions and relationships. Such entertaining pieces from everyday life are magnificent in their simplicity. An amalgamation of human psyche and sentiments, there is a tale for every occasion set in reality whether depicting love, longing, anxiety or fear. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfDirected by Sujata Soni Bali, it is a unique collection that will make the audience laugh, cry, feel and think, all in a roller-coaster journey of one hour! Carefully curated from different genres and varied in their narration and style, the stories are related in their richness and intensity. All five stories, got the audience – old and young alike – hooked on to the play with their interesting story line. The five stories were as follows:Sharifan – A poignant story set at the time of partition; where violence begets violence or could it be the turning point for peace? Original story by Saadat Hassan Manto. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe Classroom – A depiction in lighter vein that describes what goes on in the mind of a teacher when she takes her first class. Original story by Sutapa Basu.Last Letter – A touching story about a father who writes his last letter to his daughter on her birthday. Original story by Dipanker Mukherjee. Twenty Questions – An amusing story that shows an interesting conversation between two people who meet in an arranged marriage set up. Original story by Twinkle Pandey.Ek Lamha – An ethereal depiction of a poet finding his muse as he passes by the tenth floor of a building. A true narration by Tom Alter.
Kolkata: A three-day Budget session in the Assembly started on Friday with the Governor Keshari Nath Tripathi delivering his inaugural address.When Tripathi was giving a detailed account of various development schemes introduced or run by the Bengal government in past one year, the Opposition party MLAs created a ruckus at the Assembly. They shouted slogans demanding a four-day discussion on the Governor speech. However, the Governor continued with his speech unperturbed and gave a detailed account of the achievements of the state government. It may be mentioned here that a state government spokesperson on Thursday categorically mentioned that the discussion on the Governor speech would take place during the latter half of the current session in the Assembly. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedDespite the government assurances, the Opposition party MLAs staged demonstration inside the Assembly. State Finance minister Amit Mitra would present the state budget on Monday and discussion on the budget would take place in detail on Tuesday. Terming Bengal government’s ‘Krishak Bandhu’ scheme as a landmark scheme, the Governor said under the scheme yearly financial assistance to the tune of Rs 5,000 would be given to the farmers per acre and also a death benefit package of Rs 2 lakh per to farmers belonging to the age group between 18-60 years. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseMore than 72 lakh farmers will receive the benefit under the scheme. The total project cost has been estimated to be around Rs 7,000 crore. State Agriculture minister Asish Banerjee said the disbursement of cheques to the farmers would be completed in the current month. Around 38,000 cheques have already been distributed among the farmers since the project had been announced by the Chief Minister few months ago. Banerjee said that around 80,000 farmers have already registered themselves under this scheme.